The PC has improved the world in just about every area you can think of. Amazing developments in communications, collaboration and efficiencies. New kinds of entertainment and social media. Access to information and the ability to give a voice people who would never have been heard.
The Internet is becoming the town square for the global village of tomorrow.
Climate change is a terrible problem, and it absolutely needs to be solved. It deserves to be a huge priority.
The first rule of any technology used in a business is that automation applied to an efficient operation will magnify the efficiency. The second is that automation applied to an inefficient operation will magnify the inefficiency.
You may have heard of Black Friday and Cyber Monday. There's another day you might want to know about: Giving Tuesday. The idea is pretty straightforward. On the Tuesday after Thanksgiving, shoppers take a break from their gift-buying and donate what they can to charity.
I think it's fair to say that personal computers have become the most empowering tool we've ever created. They're tools of communication, they're tools of creativity, and they can be shaped by their user.
If you go back to 1800, everybody was poor. I mean everybody. The Industrial Revolution kicked in, and a lot of countries benefited, but by no means everyone.
AIDS itself is subject to incredible stigma.
I'm a great believer that any tool that enhances communication has profound effects in terms of how people can learn from each other, and how they can achieve the kind of freedoms that they're interested in.
The U.S. immigration laws are bad - really, really bad. I'd say treatment of immigrants is one of the greatest injustices done in our government's name.
What's amazing is, if young people understood how doing well in school makes the rest of their life so much interesting, they would be more motivated. It's so far away in time that they can't appreciate what it means for their whole life.
As we look ahead into the next century, leaders will be those who empower others.
Software innovation, like almost every other kind of innovation, requires the ability to collaborate and share ideas with other people, and to sit down and talk with customers and get their feedback and understand their needs.
Information technology and business are becoming inextricably interwoven. I don't think anybody can talk meaningfully about one without the talking about the other.
By the time we see that climate change is really bad, your ability to fix it is extremely limited... The carbon gets up there, but the heating effect is delayed. And then the effect of that heat on the species and ecosystem is delayed. That means that even when you turn virtuous, things are actually going to get worse for quite a while.
Research shows that there is only half as much variation in student achievement between schools as there is among classrooms in the same school. If you want your child to get the best education possible, it is actually more important to get him assigned to a great teacher than to a great school.
Driving up the value of the advertising is a big commitment for Microsoft.
Google's done a super good job on search; Apple's done a great job on the IPod.
Governments will always play a huge part in solving big problems. They set public policy and are uniquely able to provide the resources to make sure solutions reach everyone who needs them. They also fund basic research, which is a crucial component of the innovation that improves life for everyone.
The future of advertising is the Internet.
Everyone needs a coach. It doesn't matter whether you're a basketball player, a tennis player, a gymnast or a bridge player.
Just in terms of allocation of time resources, religion is not very efficient. There's a lot more I could be doing on a Sunday morning.
Considering their impact, you might expect mosquitoes to get more attention than they do. Sharks kill fewer than a dozen people every year, and in the U.S. they get a week dedicated to them on TV every year.
Internet TV and the move to the digital approach is quite revolutionary. TV has historically has been a broadcast medium with everybody picking from a very finite number of channels.
If African farmers can use improved seeds and better practices to grow more crops and get them to market, then millions of families can earn themselves a better living and a better life.
China is certainly an important player in the global economy, and a widespread AIDS epidemic would threaten that growth.
If you're a person struggling to eat and stay healthy, you might have heard about Michael Jordan or Muhammad Ali, but you'll never have heard of Bill Gates.
It's fine to celebrate success but it is more important to heed the lessons of failure.
Success is a lousy teacher. It seduces smart people into thinking they can't lose.
I believe the returns on investment in the poor are just as exciting as successes achieved in the business arena, and they are even more meaningful!
We all need people who will give us feedback. That's how we improve.
If you can't make it good, at least make it look good.
Ninety percent of the cases of polio are in security-vulnerable areas.
Headlines, in a way, are what mislead you because bad news is a headline, and gradual improvement is not.
Your most unhappy customers are your greatest source of learning.
I agree with people like Richard Dawkins that mankind felt the need for creation myths. Before we really began to understand disease and the weather and things like that, we sought false explanations for them. Now science has filled in some of the realm - not all - that religion used to fill.
Exposure from a young age to the realities of the world is a super-big thing.
In K-12, almost everybody goes to local schools. Universities are a bit different because kids actually do pick the university. The bizarre thing, though, is that the merit of university is actually how good the students going in are: the SAT scores of the kids going in.
Technology is just a tool. In terms of getting the kids working together and motivating them, the teacher is the most important.
Intellectual property has the shelf life of a banana.
I think the thing we see is that as people are using video games more, they tend to watch passive TV a bit less. And so using the PC for the Internet, playing video games, is starting to cut into the rather unbelievable amount of time people spend watching TV.
Historically, privacy was almost implicit, because it was hard to find and gather information. But in the digital world, whether it's digital cameras or satellites or just what you click on, we need to have more explicit rules - not just for governments but for private companies.
The way to be successful in the software world is to come up with breakthrough software, and so whether it's Microsoft Office or Windows, its pushing that forward. New ideas, surprising the marketplace, so good engineering and good business are one in the same.
You're never going to get the amount of CO2 emitted to go down unless you deal with the one magic metric, which is CO2 per kilowatt-hour.
Corruption is one of the most common reasons I hear in views that criticize aid.
Whether it's Google or Apple or free software, we've got some fantastic competitors and it keeps us on our toes.
Discrimination has a lot of layers that make it tough for minorities to get a leg up.
The Center for Disease Control started out as the malaria war control board based in Atlanta. Partly because the head of Coke had some people out to his plantation, and they got infected with malaria, and partly 'cause all the military recruits were coming down and having a higher fatality rate from malaria while training than in the field.
There are more people dying of malaria than any specific cancer.
I don't think there is any philosophy that suggests having polio is a good thing.
Contrary to popular belief, I don't spend a whole lot of time following soccer. But as I have traveled around the world to better understand global development and health, I've learned that soccer is truly universal. No matter where I go, that's what kids are playing. That's what people are talking about.
The year I was born, 1955, the first big disease-eradication program in the world was declared for malaria. After about a decade of work, they realized that, at least in the tropical areas, they did not have the tools to get it done.
Although I don't have a prescription for what others should do, I know I have been very fortunate and feel a responsibility to give back to society in a very significant way.
One of the statistics that always amazes me is the approval of the Chinese government, not elected, is over 80 percent. The approval of the U.S. government, fully elected, is 19 percent. Well, we elected these people and they didn't elect those people. Isn't it supposed to be different? Aren't we supposed to like the people that we elected?
Treatment without prevention is simply unsustainable.
If I'd had some set idea of a finish line, don't you think I would have crossed it years ago?
This is a fantastic time to be entering the business world, because business is going to change more in the next 10 years than it has in the last 50.
We always overestimate the change that will occur in the next two years and underestimate the change that will occur in the next ten. Don't let yourself be lulled into inaction.
Legacy is a stupid thing! I don't want a legacy.
I've been very lucky, and therefore I owe it to try and reduce the inequity in the world. And that's kind of a religious belief. I mean, it's at least a moral belief.
When Paul Allen and I started Microsoft over 30 years ago, we had big dreams about software. We had dreams about the impact it could have.
You can always think of something like the Xbox 360 as a super set-top box that can do everything the set-top box does, but then have the graphics to do the games as well.
Americans want students to get the best education possible. We want schools to prepare children to become good citizens and members of a prosperous American economy.
Certainly there's a phenomenon around open source. You know free software will be a vibrant area. There will be a lot of neat things that get done there.
In the long run, your human capital is your main base of competition. Your leading indicator of where you're going to be 20 years from now is how well you're doing in your education system.
The 'Billionaire' song is what my kids tease me with. They sing it to me. It's funny.
The advance of technology is based on making it fit in so that you don't really even notice it, so it's part of everyday life.
Bitcoin is mostly about anonymous transactions, and I don't think over time that's a good way to go. I'm a huge believe in digital currency... but doing it on an anonymous basis I think that leads to some abuses, so I'm not involved in Bitcoin.
In terms of mathematics textbooks, why can't you have the scale of a national market? Right now, we have a Texas textbook that's different from a California textbook that's different from a Massachusetts textbook. That's very expensive.
We are in the throes of a transition where every publication has to think of their digital strategy.
In business, the idea of measuring what you are doing, picking the measurements that count like customer satisfaction and performance... you thrive on that.
Innovations that are guided by smallholder farmers, adapted to local circumstances, and sustainable for the economy and environment will be necessary to ensure food security in the future.
Until we're educating every kid in a fantastic way, until every inner city is cleaned up, there is no shortage of things to do.
Effective philanthropy requires a lot of time and creativity - the same kind of focus and skills that building a business requires.
What destroys more self-confidence than any other educational thing in America is being assigned to some remedial math when you get into some college, and then it's not taught very well and you end up with this sense of, 'Hey, I can't really figure those things out.'
It's a nice reader, but there's nothing on the iPad I look at and say, 'Oh, I wish Microsoft had done it.'
On my desk I have three screens, synchronized to form a single desktop. I can drag items from one screen to the next. Once you have that large display area, you'll never go back, because it has a direct impact on productivity.
This social-networking thing takes you to crazy places.
The world at large is less inequitable today than at any time in history. Number of people in abject poverty, as a percentage, is at all-time low.
Philanthropy should be voluntary.
The ability of a successful company to add functionality to its product has long been upheld.
Well the protester I think is a very powerful thing. It's basically a mechanism of democracy that, along with capitalism, scientific innovation, those things have built the modern world. And it's wonderful that the new tools have empowered that protestor so that state secrets, bad developments are not hidden anymore.
Well I think any author or musician is anxious to have legitimate sales of their products, partly so they're rewarded for their success, partly so they can go on and do new things.
I would counsel people to go to college, because it's one of the best times in your life in terms of who you meet and develop a broad set of intellectual skills.
Nuclear energy, in terms of an overall safety record, is better than other energy.
Some people, through luck and skill, end up with a lot of assets. If you're good at kicking a ball, writing software, investing in stocks, it pays extremely well.
China and the U.S. need each other very badly. Yes, we should argue about some things, but it's not an 'us versus them,' it's an 'us and them' type scenario.
The best teacher is very interactive.
Innovation is moving at a scarily fast pace.
Teaching's hard! You need different skills: positive reinforcement, keeping students from getting bored, commanding their attention in a certain way.
When I was growing up, my parents were almost involved in various volunteer things. My dad was head of Planned Parenthood. And it was very controversial to be involved with that.
The Gates Foundation has learned that two questions can predict how much kids learn: 'Does your teacher use class time well?' and, 'When you're confused, does your teacher help you get straightened out?'
Certainly I'll never be able to put myself in the situation that people growing up in the less developed countries are in. I've gotten a bit of a sense of it by being out there and meeting people and talking with them.
Expectations are a form of first-class truth: If people believe it, it's true.
I have been struck again and again by how important measurement is to improving the human condition.
Being able to see an activity log of where a kid has been going on the Internet is a good thing.
I have a nice office. I have a nice house... So I'm not denying myself some great things. I just don't happen to have expensive hobbies.
The tool that's most associated with the recent progress against malaria is the long-lasting bed net. Bed nets are a fantastic innovation. But we can do even better. We can invent new ways to control the mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite.
Should surveillance be usable for petty crimes like jaywalking or minor drug possession? Or is there a higher threshold for certain information? Those aren't easy questions.
Antitrust is the way that the government promotes markets when there are market failures. It has nothing to do with the idea of free information.
Digital reading will completely take over. It's lightweight and it's fantastic for sharing. Over time it will take over.
Should there be cameras everywhere in outdoor streets? My personal view is having cameras in inner cities is a very good thing. In the case of London, petty crime has gone down. They catch terrorists because of it. And if something really bad happens, most of the time you can figure out who did it.
Some very poor countries run great vaccination systems, and some richer ones run terrible programs.
I don't like typing messages on my phone. Some people get used to it.
We have to find a way to make the aspects of capitalism that serve wealthier people serve poorer people as well.
My wife thinks she's better than me at puzzles. I haven't given in on that one yet.
Over time, yes, countries will need to look at specific GMO products like they look at drugs today, where they don't approve them all. They look hard at the safety and the testing. And they make sure that the benefits far outweigh any of the downsides.
People always fear change. People feared electricity when it was invented, didn't they? People feared coal, they feared gas-powered engines... There will always be ignorance, and ignorance leads to fear. But with time, people will come to accept their silicon masters.
Well-spent aid money is saving lives for a few thousand dollars per life saved.
People are going to buy cheap fertilizer so they can grow enough crops to feed themselves, which will be increasingly difficult with climate change.
Really advanced civilization is based on advances in energy.
People are using Windows PCs more than they watch TV now.
For Africa to move forward, you've really got to get rid of malaria.
Paper is no longer a big part of my day. I get 90% of my news online, and when I go to a meeting and want to jot things down, I bring my Tablet PC. It's fully synchronized with my office machine, so I have all the files I need. It also has a note-taking piece of software called OneNote, so all my notes are in digital form.
Capitalism has worked very well. Anyone who wants to move to North Korea is welcome.
To create a new standard, it takes something that's not just a little bit different; it takes something that's really new and really captures people's imagination, and the Macintosh, of all the machines I've ever seen, is the only one that meets that standard.
We've got to put a lot of money into changing behavior.
The most interesting biofuel efforts avoid using land that's expensive and has high opportunity costs. They do this by getting onto other types of land, or taking advantage of byproducts that aren't used in the food chain today, or by intercropping.
Haiti should remind us all that there is an immediate need to invest in and promote long-term development projects that are sustainable, scalable, and proven to work.
The main thing that's missing in energy is an incentive to create things that are zero-CO2-emitting and that have the right scale and reliability characteristics.
The only definition by which America's best days are behind it is on a purely relative basis.
India is more of an aid recipient than a provider of aid.
The worst pandemic in modern history was the Spanish flu of 1918, which killed tens of millions of people. Today, with how interconnected the world is, it would spread faster.
Software substitution, whether it's for drivers or waiters or nurses - it's progressing. Technology over time will reduce demand for jobs, particularly at the lower end of skill set.
I don't think there's a... boundary between digital media and print media. Every magazine is doing an online version.
When I was in my 40s, Microsoft was my primary activity.
We make the future sustainable when we invest in the poor, not when we insist on their suffering.
Unemployment rates among Americans who never went to college are about double that of those who have a postsecondary education.
It's possible - you can never know - that the universe exists only for me. If so, it's sure going well for me, I must admit.
I went to a public school through sixth grade, and being good at tests wasn't cool.
In a budget, how important is art versus music versus athletics versus computer programming? At the end of the day, some of those trade-offs will be made politically.
Understanding science and pushing the boundaries of science is what makes me immensely satisfied.
I've always been amazed by Da Vinci, because he worked out science on his own. He would work by drawing things and writing down his ideas. Of course, he designed all sorts of flying machines way before you could actually build something like that.
OK, I have a nickname. My family calls me 'Trey' because I'm William the third. My dad has the same name, which is always confusing because my dad is well known, and I'm also known.
The belief that the world is getting worse, that we can't solve extreme poverty and disease, isn't just mistaken. It is harmful.
There's always been a lot of information about your activities. Every phone number you dial, every credit-card charge you make. It's long since passed that a typical person doesn't leave footprints.
If your culture doesn't like geeks, you are in real trouble.
I spend a lot of time reading.
In almost every area of human endeavor, the practice improves over time. That hasn't been the case for teaching.
Fortunately for India, it has got a growing economy. If it is doing the right things with taxation and focusing on the right areas for human development, it is going to have no problem, over a period of time, taking care of its own needs.
I have a company that is not Microsoft, called Corbis. Corbis is the operation that merged with Bettman Archives. It has nothing to do with Microsoft. It was intentionally done outside of Microsoft because Microsoft isn't interested.
Microsoft is not about greed. It's about innovation and fairness.
Whether I'm at the office, at home, or on the road, I always have a stack of books I'm looking forward to reading.
Globalization has made copper and other minerals more valuable, and Ghana and Kenya have recently discovered mineral resources.
If you've found some way to educate yourself about engineering, stocks, or whatever it is, good employers will have some type of exam or interview and see a sample of your work.
I read a lot of obscure books and it is nice to open a book.
I get more spam than anyone I know.
Living on $6 a day means you have a refrigerator, a TV, a cell phone, your children can go to school. That's not possible on $1 a day.
The ideal thing would be to have a 100 percent effective AIDS vaccine. And to have broad usage of that vaccine. That would literally break the epidemic.
I don't generally read a lot of fiction.
In almost every job now, people use software and work with information to enable their organisation to operate more effectively.
In order for the United States to do the right things for the long term, it appears to be helpful for us to have the prospect of humiliation. Sputnik helped us fund good science - really good science: the semiconductor came out of it.
Apple has always leveraged technologies that the PC industry has driven to critical mass - the bus structures, the graphics cards, the peripherals, the connection networks, things like that - so they're kind of in the PC ecosystem and kind of not.
Measles will always show you if someone isn't doing a good job on vaccinations. Kids will start dying of measles.
Software is a great combination between artistry and engineering.
If you have 50 different plug types, appliances wouldn't be available and would be very expensive. But once an electric outlet becomes standardized, many companies can design appliances, and competition ensues, creating variety and better prices for consumers.
In poor countries, we still need better ways to measure the effectiveness of the many government workers providing health services. They are the crucial link bringing tools such as vaccines and education to the people who need them most. How well trained are they? Are they showing up to work?
At Microsoft there are lots of brilliant ideas but the image is that they all come from the top - I'm afraid that's not quite right.
For a highly motivated learner, it's not like knowledge is secret and somehow the Internet made it not secret. It just made knowledge easy to find. If you're a motivated enough learner, books are pretty good.
The outside perception and inside perception of Microsoft are so different. The view of Microsoft inside Microsoft is always kind of an underdog thing.
Security is, I would say, our top priority because for all the exciting things you will be able to do with computers - organizing your lives, staying in touch with people, being creative - if we don't solve these security problems, then people will hold back.
Steve Jobs' ability to focus in on a few things that count, get people who get user interface right, and market things as revolutionary are amazing things.
When Ford sells a car, a dealer isn't allowed to take out the engine and put a different one in. When a newsstand sells the Washington Post, no one can go to the newsstand and pay them to rip out the classified section and put their own classified section in - if they could, they would do so.
In energy, you have to plan and do research way in advance, sometimes decades in advance to get a new system that's safer, doesn't require us to go around the world to get all our oil.
Typically, your corporate e-mail account is not, today, that spam-targeted. It's more the free e-mail accounts that are spam-targeted.
The Global Fund is a central player in the progress being achieved on HIV, TB and malaria. It channels resources to help countries fight these diseases. I believe in its impact because I have seen it firsthand.
There are websites that any government wants to block. The truth about the Internet is that it's extremely hard to block anything - extremely hard. You'll never get perfect blocking.
In ninth grade, I came up with a new form of rebellion. I hadn't been getting good grades, but I decided to get all A's without taking a book home. I didn't go to math class, because I knew enough and had read ahead, and I placed within the top 10 people in the nation on an aptitude exam.
Well private money can take risks in a way that government money often isn't willing to.
I believe that if you show people the problems and you show them the solutions they will be moved to act.
Certainly, the Windows share of servers is strong.
The malaria parasite has been killing children and sapping the strength of whole populations for tens of thousands of years. It is impossible to calculate the harm malaria has done to the world.
In order to deal with all the medical cost demands and other challenges in the U.S., as we look to raise that revenue, the rich will have to pay slightly more. That's quite clear.
People everywhere love Windows.
I was lucky to be involved and get to contribute to something that was important, which is empowering people with software.
In the old generation, if one kid bought a PlayStation 2 and the other kid bought an Xbox, at his house you played PlayStation, at your house you played Xbox. Now that it's online, all those early buyers who... you want to play with, they've got their reputation online of who they are and how good they are at these games.
I really had a lot of dreams when I was a kid, and I think a great deal of that grew out of the fact that I had a chance to read a lot.
In this business, by the time you realize you're in trouble, it's too late to save yourself. Unless you're running scared all the time, you're gone.
I know there's a farmer out there somewhere who never wants a PC and that's fine with me.
The spread of online information isn't just good for charities. It's also good for donors. You can go to a site like Charity Navigator, which evaluates nonprofits on their financial health as well as the amount of information they share about their work.
The general idea of the rich helping the poor, I think, is important.
The U.S. couldn't even get rid of Saddam Hussein. And we all know that the EU is just a passing fad. They'll be killing each other again in less than a year. I'm sick to death of all these fascist lawsuits.
I'm a geek.
I have an excellent memory, a most excellent memory.
I never took a day off in my twenties. Not one. And I'm still fanatical, but now I'm a little less fanatical.
There is no author whose books I look forward to more than Vaclav Smil.
In inner-city, low-income communities of color, there's such a high correlation in terms of educational quality and success.
It's hard to improve public education - that's clear.
Eradications are special. Zero is a magic number. You either do what it takes to get to zero and you're glad you did it; or you get close, give up and it goes back to where it was before, in which case you wasted all that credibility, activity, money that could have been applied to other things.
There are people who don't like capitalism, and people who don't like PCs. But there's no-one who likes the PC who doesn't like Microsoft.
I actually thought that it would be a little confusing during the same period of your life to be in one meeting when you're trying to make money, and then go to another meeting where you're giving it away. I mean is it gonna erode your ability, you know, to make money? Are you gonna somehow get confused about what you're trying to do?
A lot of the things that will really improve the world fortunately aren't dependent on Washington doing something different.
3D is a way of organizing things, particularly as we're getting much more media information on the computer, a lot more choices, a lot more navigation than we've ever had before.
Any version of Windows is going to have lots of great new things that people use and things that are tough.
Eventually you won't think of 'the Internet business.' You'll think of it more like news, weather, sports, but even that taxonomy isn't clear.
I like the idea of putting your Christmas wish list up and letting people share it.
I think when smallpox was eliminated, the whole world got pretty excited about that because it's just such a dramatic success.
The most impactful dollars that Australia can spend are actually what goes to help the poorest.
I'm certainly well taken care of in terms of food and clothes.
I'm an investor in a number of biotech companies, partly because of my incredible enthusiasm for the great innovations they will bring.
My mom was on the United Way group that decides how to allocate the money and looks at all the different charities and makes the very hard decisions about where that pool of funds is going to go.
If people want capital gains taxed more like the highest rate on income, that's a good discussion. Maybe that's the way to help close the deficit.
In 80% of the world, energy will be bought where it is economic. You have to help the rest of the world get energy at a reasonable price.
The world has been very careful to pick very few diseases for eradication, because it is very tough.
Today, we're very dependent on cheap energy. We just take it for granted - all the things you have in the house, the way industry works.
The fight against AIDS in China is already well underway. The Chinese government and other funders are providing major support, and they'll continue to bear primary responsibility for delivering prevention and treatment.
Common Core is a big win for education.
Personally, I'd like to see more of our leaders take a technocratic approach to solving our biggest problems.
Flying cars are not a very efficient way to move things from one point to another.
You have to have a certain realism that government is a pretty blunt instrument, and without the constant attention of highly qualified people with the right metrics, it will fall into not doing things very well.
Harnessing steam power required many innovations, as William Rosen chronicles in the book 'The Most Powerful Idea in the World.'
If you count E-mail, I'm on the Internet all day, every day.
I can understand wanting to have millions of dollars; there's a certain freedom, meaningful freedom, that comes with that.
I don't think culture is something you can describe.
I was a kind of hyper-intense person in my twenties and very impatient.
I'm not a macroeconomics person.
The tablet is not mainstream. Reading off the screen is not mainstream.
Two out of every five people on Earth today owe their lives to the higher crop outputs that fertilizer has made possible.
Nobody believes in completely unadulterated capitalism.
India has over 20 percent of the kids born in the world. And they move around a lot.
It is hard to overstate how valuable it is to have all the incredible tools that are used for human disease to study plants.
It's the poorer people in tropical zones who will get really hit by climate change - as well as some ecosystems, which nobody wants to see disappear.
Like any well designed software product, Windows is designed, developed and tested as an integrated whole.
Middle-income countries are the biggest users of GMOs. Places like Brazil.
By 2035, there will be almost no poor countries left in the world. Almost all countries will be what we now call lower-middle income or richer.
Money has no utility to me beyond a certain point.
Netscape was able to get the government working on its behalf.
My son likes to go see mines and electric plants, or the Large Hadron Collider, and we've had a chance to see a lot of interesting stuff.
Nigeria has moved into low-middle-income, but their north is very poor, and the health care systems there have broken down.
Philanthropy should be taking much bigger risks that business. If these are easy problems, business and government can come in and solve them.
The most amazing philanthropists are people who are actually making a significant sacrifice.
The typical project design time for a large company like IBM - and they keep track of this - is a little over four years.
You can't have a rigid view that all new taxes are evil.
Countries which receive aid do graduate. Within a generation, Korea went from being a big recipient to being a big aid donor. China used to get quite a bit of aid; now it's aid-neutral.
The part of uranium that's fissile - when you hit it with a neutron, it splits in two - is about 0.7%. The reactors we have today are burning that 0.7%.
We all sort of do want incentives for creative people to still exist at a certain level. You know, maybe rock stars shouldn't make as much; who knows? But you want as much creativity to take place in the future as took place in the past.
Windows is probably the most important product in the entire PC industry. Everything we do in terms of supporting touch, new hardware, accessibility has incredible impact.
One thing I've always loved about the culture at Microsoft is there is nobody who is tougher on us, in terms of what we need to learn and do better, than the people in the company itself. You can walk down these halls, and they'll tell you, 'We need to do usability better, push this or that frontier.'
There is no doubt that as an economy grows in a great way like India has, that you have to step back and change your tax systems, because you start to get more disparities of wealth.
There's no such thing as going to a soapbox and saying, 'The government's corrupt,' and not having the intelligence service see your face. In the digital world, that can be done.
If all my bridge coach ever told me was that I was 'satisfactory,' I would have no hope of ever getting better. How would I know who was the best? How would I know what I was doing differently?
Outlook 2003 did create the idea of search folders and the whole Longhorn philosophy. You can see it at work in search folders, where instead of having to drop things into individual folders, and things exist only in one folder, you create these search folders and you have the criteria for the search folder.
There's 20 companies that I have investments in - some batteries, some solar-thermal, one big nuclear thing. We need hundreds and hundreds of companies like that, so that in a 20-year time frame we really are starting to change the energy infrastructure.
The idea that you encourage companies to take their innovative thinkers and think about the most needy - even beyond the market opportunities - that's something that appropriately ought to be done.
The potential financial reward for building the 'next Windows' is so great that there will never be a shortage of new technologies seeking to challenge it.
The common thread for everything I do is this idea of a Web-services architecture. What does that mean? It means taking components of software and systems and having them be self-describing, so that you can aim them, ask them what their capabilities are, and communicate with them using a standard protocol.
I'm not big on to-do lists. Instead, I use e-mail and desktop folders and my online calendar. So when I walk up to my desk, I can focus on the e-mails I've flagged and check the folders that are monitoring particular projects and particular blogs.
With Windows 8, Microsoft is trying to gain market share in what has been dominated by the iPad-type device. But a lot of those users are frustrated. They can't type. They can't create documents.
Even with cameras being very cheap, one thing that researchers noticed was that you look really bad in a videoconference image because the lighting is bad and you get shadows and things.
The future of Windows is to let the computer see, listen and even learn.
I meet people overseas that know five languages - that the only language I'm comfortable in is English.
K to 12 is partly about babysitting the kids so the parents can do other things.
In low-income countries, getting to a health post is hard. It's very expensive.
My experience of malaria was just taking anti-malarials, which give you strange dreams, because I don't want to get malaria.
No one person controls Microsoft. The board and the shareholders decide whether they want to have me as CEO.
Nobody spends any money on smallpox unless they worry about a bio-terrorist recreating it.
The Internet is the easiest thing to get into. To be an Internet retailer, you just get that URL.
The intersection of law, politics, and technology is going to force a lot of good thinking.
There certainly is a case to be made that taxes should be more progressive.
Windows 8 is key to the future, the Surface computer.
I think there will be PCs at every price point.
I'm going to retain a lot of Microsoft's stock.
I'm never fully satisfied with any Microsoft product.
I've always been interested in science - one of my favourite books is James Watson's 'Molecular Biology of the Gene.'
Investing for the poor requires participation from the entire community.
The quality of research in the U.S. is absolutely the best.
Lectures should go from being like the family singing around the piano to high-quality concerts.
Money has always been in politics. And I'm not sure you'd want money to be completely out of politics.
Most poor people live in the poorest countries.
My mom and my dad were both very sociable, meeting lots of interesting people.
Newspaper readership is still growing in India.
Our teachers deserve better feedback.
People should just buy a CD and rip it. You are legal then.
Security guys break the Mac every single day. Every single day, they come out with a total exploit; your machine can be taken over totally.
The bulk of the universities are about teaching kids.
The microprocessor is a miracle.
The moral systems of religion, I think, are super important.
The protestor I think will speak up for the world's poorest.
The world is not flat, and PCs are not, in the hierarchy of human needs, in the first five rungs.
There is a difference between what technology enables and what historical business practices enable.
I am results-oriented.
SPAM is taking e-mail, which is a wonderful tool, and exploiting the idea that it's very inexpensive to send mail.
A first-generation fortune is the most likely to be given away, but once a fortune is inherited it's less likely that a very high percentage will go back to society.
Now everyone takes it for granted that you can look up movie reviews, track locations, and order stuff online. I wish there was a way we could take it away from people for a day so they could remember what it was like without it.
People don't want lots and lots of single purpose devices. They do not want to have to learn how to set up something for photos, another thing for music, another thing for video.
The truth of Moore's law has made remarkable things possible. On the software side, I think natural user interfaces in all their forms are equally significant.
By improving health, empowering women, population growth comes down.
If GM had kept up with technology like the computer industry has, we would all be driving $25 cars that got 1,000 MPG.
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